Direct speech to reported speech

Indirect speech

Sentences in direct and indirect speechLet us now look at concrete cases, examples and sentences written in both direct speech and indirect speech. For this, we present the following examples:Sentences in indirect speech:Juan said that he was going to be late.The President indicated in his speech that he had signed a salary increase.The offender said that he confessed his guilt, but that there were extenuating circumstances for his behavior.Luis was in the kitchen, when he mentioned that he was feeling unhealthy. The President said in his speech: «I have signed a salary increase».Luis was in the kitchen when he mentioned: «I am feeling unhealthy».With the above, we hope we have made clear to our readers the characteristics of both types of speeches. There is no doubt that examples are the best way to clarify this issue.Summary and definitionsDirect speech means saying exactly what someone else said. Direct speechHe says, «I have the package. «Indirect speech (also called reported speech) means saying what someone else said without quoting exactly what they said. This means that you don’t necessarily use their words.You don’t use quotation marks with indirect speech.

Direct and indirect pronouns

Direct speech is the style in which the speaker literally reproduces the words of another.[1] It is marked graphically with lines of dialogue or quotation marks, for example: José Manuel said «I’m bringing pizza for dinner».

Indirect discourse is the style in which the speaker refers to what is stated by another by anchoring the deictic elements at the moment of speech:[2] Manuel said that he liked sports very much. Since the quotation is not repeated verbatim, it undergoes certain changes. The first person becomes third person, as well as possessive pronouns, possessive adjectives and first person objective pronouns. Likewise, the second person becomes first person. Verb tenses are updated and adverbs of place and time are modified accordingly.

In spoken language, the tense of what the person says is preserved, although sometimes the tense of the person changes, since the time of the utterance is past for the present. The question «What does he/she say?» now changes to «What did he/she say?».

Free indirect speech

When someone conveys in his own words what another person says, without modifying the sense or meaning of the story, we will say that he is expressing or speaking in indirect speech. For example:

In summary, we can say that the two discourses, both direct and indirect discourse are just two different ways of reporting a statement of a person. Put another way in simple words, quoting a person using his or her words is called indirect speech.

In indirect speech, we often use a tense that is «further back» in the past (e.g., worked) than the tense originally used (e.g., work). This form of expression is called «backward». We may also need to change other words that were used.


Reported Speech: explanation, examples and exercisesIndex of the articleThe Reported Speech of English (also called ‘Indirect speech’ or, more for these parts, ‘Indirect style of English’) is perhaps the aspect of English grammar that causes more headaches, one of the most forgotten and, look how causality, one of the most importantBecause, for example, it is essential to master it to obtain qualifications such as the ‘First certificate’ or ‘CAE’ so demanded today by companies of all kinds. Not to mention that it is widely used in written English, both in formal and informal language, both in the best works of Shakespeare and in the Whatsapp messages of your university group…

Reasons there are many to learn ‘Reported Speech’ (well, actually the direct and indirect style of English). Or well, maybe it’s better to say «remember it». Well, we have all seen these notions of English grammar at school or high school, but they tend to be forgotten with the passing of time (as well as others, such as the well-known English connectors). That’s why it is convenient to review them from time to time! That’s the reason for this article: to remind you what the ‘Reported Speech’ is; how the indirect style of English is formulated; and what aspects change when you go from direct speech to indirect speech; as well as many examples and exercises to complement it. We hope you find it helpful Before we get to Reported Speech: what is direct speech, let’s start at the beginning (textbook tautology); before we dive into Reported Speech, let’s take a look at its opposite: Direct Speech. An indivisible part of the indirect style that has brought you here today.What is the direct style in English? The one we use to report exactly what the other person has said. To do this, word for word, we put what was said in quotation marks. So: What is the indirect style of English then? The explanation of the ‘Reported Speech’ is nothing but the opposite of the direct style that we explained in the previous point. That is to say:


Por admin