Direct and indirect speech
Direct speech is the reproduction of a message in the same way in which it was sent, without alterations or interpretations. In other words, it is quoting your own or someone else’s idea, just as it was said.There are two ways to indicate that it is direct speech: with quotation marks or with dashes.With quotation marksIn a written text, you can recognize direct speech by the use of quotation marks, which indicate that the words that follow are someone else’s or have been copied as they were originally written. For example:
In our everyday communication, we frequently use the indirect style, both orally and in writing.How to modify verb tenses in indirect speech.Since in indirect speech the message is not reproduced in its original form, it may undergo modifications that are expressed by changes in verb tenses or pronouns. Moreover, in indirect speech, the conjunction «que» precedes the idea to be communicated. In this comparative table we can see some examples of these modifications:
Indirect language, on the other hand, is the one in which someone makes reference to what another person or character has said, that is, to communicate in a faithful way what another person has said, for example: Alberto said he did not want to go to the fair.
In the reading of language, direct language allows us to know more about the personality of the characters, their way of thinking and even their state of mind. On the other hand, indirect language appears when the «narrator» refers to what the characters said.
On the other hand, there is effective communication, which is the correct expression of ideas and opinions that receive feedback through spoken conversation. This skill is one of the most important in the list to be a successful leader, in any aspect of life.
Direct and indirect pronouns
In order for you to better understand this part of the theory we have just mentioned, we are going to give you examples of direct and indirect style in sentences. In this way, the concepts will be much clearer to you.
And as a final touch, we are going to propose some exercises of direct and indirect style that will help you to test yourself and to evaluate by yourself if you have really understood this lesson. Below you will find the solutions, but we recommend that you do not look at them beforehand so that the exercise will be fruitful for you. Statement: Indicate whether these sentences are direct or indirect sentences. Solutions
I had bought that dictionary for her to learn her first words. One day, it was Saturday, an urbane and terribly cold Saturday, she confessed to me that the dictionary had disappeared from the house. She declared, with the solemnity of adolescents, that she had never thought of getting rid of it and therefore the loss was mysterious and frightening to her:
Indirect speech spanish
Direct discourse is the style in which the speaker literally reproduces the words of another. It is marked graphically with lines of dialogue or quotation marks, for example: José Manuel said «I’m bringing pizza for dinner».
Indirect discourse is the style in which the speaker refers to what is stated by another by anchoring the deictic elements at the moment of speech: Manuel said that he liked sports very much. Since the quotation is not repeated verbatim, it undergoes certain changes. The first person becomes third person, as well as possessive pronouns, possessive adjectives and first person objective pronouns. Likewise, the second person becomes first person. Verb tenses are updated and adverbs of place and time are modified accordingly.
In spoken language, the tense of what the person says is preserved, although sometimes the tense of the person changes, since the time of the utterance is past for the present. The question «What does he/she say?» now changes to «What did he/she say?».